Report of the eGaaS team

June 23, 2017 — August 1, 2017
Costs in the period: $35 000

Research and development

Parallel processing of transactions

We have developed a mechanism of parallel multi-threaded processing of transactions coming from different ecosystems during the creation of a block, which will significantly increase the network performance.

Incomplete nodes

We propose an algorithm for using ecosystems incomplete nodes that store only a part of blocks (containing transactions of one or several interconnected ecosystems), which makes the platform more affordable for small projects ( see fig. below).

Solution of the Problem of Contract Vulnerability

One of the most difficult challenged faced by developers of blockchain platforms with smart contract mechanisms is the potential vulnerability of contract codes. Such a vulnerability can lead to misuse of applications or even cause malfunctions in the platform’s operation (for example, TheDAO on Ethereum). In order to address this challenge, some developers suggest using the formal checks of contract codes, and add to the platforms’ cores the mechanisms for consensus approval of amendments made to protocols. However, according to our analysis, no formal checks can guarantee the absence of vulnerabilities in applications, and most of such vulnerabilities can’t be eliminated by way of changing network protocols (and even if such change is necessary, it will take a lot of time).

Realizing this, the Apla team suggests another way of addressing this problem: if it is impossible to guarantee the elimination of vulnerabilities in the source codes of applications, then a reliable system for elimination of their harmful effects should be built. We call it a digital legal system — a set of rules, codified in special contracts that we call smart laws. These laws allow for eliminating the harmful effects of using code vulnerabilities (without applying the hard fork method) by way of execution of pre-configured algorithms (for example, in the case similar to TheDAO, return the money to the owner by withdrawing it from the attacker’s account).

Contract Relations and Documents on Blockchain

Our team has analyzed the existing solutions for organization of document management on blockchain and created an ideology for implementation of a proof-of-concept in this area for one of the Middle-East countries.

Customizable Algorithm — Approved Proof of Contribution

We developed an ideology for a new consensus algorithm: approved proof of contribution. In this ideology, ecosystems vote for providing a node with validating rights, but only ecosystems that were approved as genuinely functioning — Contributing — are eligible to vote. Ecosystems should be approved as Contributing by investors (owners of APL tokens) voting. We believe that this procedure will result in only big ecosystems running the validating nodes, since it is in their best interest to maintain the network operation.

Software Applications on the eGaaS Platform

Configurable Token Emission System

This application works as an ecosystem’s minimal financial system with the following functions:

  • Configuration of token parameters
  • Token emission
  • Creation of account registers
  • Creation of accounts
  • Token exchange interface
  • Token transactions and emission control contracts

Ecosystems Role Management and Notifications System

The application features:

  • Creation of roles,
  • Assignment of roles to ecosystem members,
  • Sending notifications about events in the ecosystem (incoming messages, voting invitations, contract signing notifications, etc.)

Platform and Language of Smart Contracts

The following features were added / improvements made:

Development of Template Engine Language

  • Optimized the data storage model
  • Unified operations with the database
  • Transferred a part of product functions to smart contracts


  • Prepared for transition to work using REST API

Current Changes and Corrections

  • Improved the blockchain creation and inter-node data exchange mechanisms
  • Optimized the interaction procedures between backend and frontend

Platform Design and Interface

Visual Interface Designer

Interface Designer has been further developed.

Market Review

Delaware Governor Signs Blockchain Bill Into Law

Delaware governor John C. Carney Jr. signed the bill on Friday, effectively bringing closure to an effort that began in May 2016 when his predecessor, Jack Markell, launched an initiative to promote blockchain efficiencies in government.

First publicized in March this year and introduced formally in May, the bill, which amends Delaware’s General Corporation Law, saw a swift passage by state lawmakers.

Jul 24, 2017 at 13:30 UTC by Pete Rizzo /

Blockchain for Taxation?

Vertex, a tax technology company by trade, is looking to build blockchain into the point of sale, allowing tax to be collected immediately, delivered to the government in real-time, and virtually eliminating the need for auditing by local officials. Whether this sort of solution is viable to governments remains to be seen, and the institutional fears about blockchain and cryptocurrency may keep it out of the market place. However, the solution appears to be a viable potential for solving issues with legacy systems.

JUL 20, 2017. By Jon Buck /

China’s Chief Justice Gets Blockchain Briefing in Trip to Guiyang Courts

Zhou Qiang, China’s chief justice, received a briefing on blockchain technology last week during an inspection of the city of Guiyang in southwestern China.

Last December, Guiyang released a white paper detailing its blockchain research efforts, making it the first municipal government in China to do so.

Jul 17, 2017 at 11:00 UTC by Chuan Tian /

Multinational Aid Network Trials Blockchain for Donations Tracking

A multinational network for aid groups is testing blockchain to track donations and aid disbursements.

The Start Network, which counts more than 40 organizations within its membership and is headquartered in the UK, announced yesterday that it is working with a startup called Disberse to test the tech. Contributors to the network include groups like Oxfam and Save the Children, as well as an aid-focused office in the European Commission.

Jul 12, 2017 at 19:30 UTC by Wolfie Zhao /

Anonymous Deliveries: Canada Introduces Blockchain, Tor-Based Delivery System

The Lelantos Blockchain platform developed by researchers from the two above mentioned Canadian universities uses smart contracts and the immutability of Blockchain technology to facilitate deliveries in a direct manner between delivery companies, sellers and buyers.

In the beginning, the initial smart contract is created and initiated by the purchaser trying to receive products anonymously from the seller. Another smart contract is then made with delivery companies, automating the entire process with the Lelantos Blockchain network.

JUL 18, 2017. By Joseph Young /